The technological process of drilling
Drilling, reaming and countersinking are the methods of processing Circular holes. They are characterized by the same kinematic principle, but the construction of the cutting tools, the accuracy of the hole making and the volume of the material to be cut are different in each case.
Drilling is used to shape holes in solid material or to enlarge the diameter of a pre-drilled hole. The achieved accuracy of dimensions and shapes is included in classes IT11-IT14.
Varieties of drilling, reaming and countersinking:
- Solid material drilling
- Rough reaming
- Finishing reaming
- Face and face countersinking
- Frontal dredging
Due to the shape of the hole, a distinction is made between through and blind drilling. Reaming is used for machining holes with high dimensional and shape accuracy and low surface roughness. For very fine holes, three machining passes are usually used: roughing, semi-finishing and finishing.
The technological process of chamfering
Chamfering is one of the bevelling methods, i.e. creating an edge between two sides of a material at an angle other than a right angle. Chamfering is usually performed by machining with the following tools:
Chamfering is also performed on the following machines:
- Milling machine
The technological process of bending
Bending is a process that results in shaping the assumed form. It consists of several stages. Currently, the bending process on an industrial scale is performed entirely on machines. There are three phases in the process:
- Spring bending
- Plastic bending
In the first phase, only the initial metal shaping process takes place. Permanent modification occurs in the second phase. Forcing is used to obtain the final form.
During processing, a number of additional activities are performed, including:
Thanks to modern machines, it is possible to obtain precise parameters of the bent material and the results of the process are very accurate and repeatable.
Threading is the process by which the hole or surfaces of a cylindrical body are formed, a so-called external thread. The process is carried out by mechanical or plastic working. The main threading methods include:
- Hand threading with dies and taps
- Mechanical threading with lathes, drills and CNC machines
- Thread grinding
- Thread forming