Spawanie jako proces technologiczny
Welding consists of an integral connection of two parts and belongs to the group of joining processes in accordance with DIN 8590. During the welding process, the material at the joint is brought to a liquid or plastic state by heat, and then joined together with a suitable filler material. Welding allows metals to be joined quickly and economically, which is why this process has been one of the most important joining processes in the field of sheet metal processing for many years.
The main welding techniques currently include:
- Gas shielded welding.
All processes in this welding technique are carried out using a protective gas that shields the arc and the weld pool from the atmosphere. A distinction is made between methods with melting electrodes (MAG / TIG) and methods with non-consumable tungsten electrodes (TIG / WP). In most cases, the welding process is automated and the choice of shielding gas depends on the process and material being welded.
- Oxyacetylene welding.
In oxyacetylene welding, also known as gas welding, the material at the welding point is melted with an oxyacetylene flame with a temperature of up to 3200 ° C. The gases required for this are taken from the gas cylinders provided and sent to the torch via a hose system. This method is especially suitable for hard-to-reach places, as welding is possible in all positions.
- Arc welding.
Arc welding includes shielding gas, plasma, submerged arc and electric welding. The arc serves as a heat source that ignites during the welding process between the electrode and the workpiece, thus creating a closed circuit. Due to the high development of the heat of the arc, both the material at the welding point and the supplied rod electrode and the resulting molten alloy form the welding seam when cooled.
- Laser welding.
A laser is a high-tech tool used to join a wide variety of materials. The high energy density laser beam is precisely aimed at the welding point. The surface of the material melts and forms an extremely fine weld seam during solidification, therefore laser welding in most cases takes place without filler material. Thanks to this non-contact process, plastics can also be optimally welded in addition to sheet metal parts.